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  5. The influence of system refraction effects on results of measurements, carried out by electromagnetic waves on transatmospheric traces

The influence of system refraction effects on results of measurements, carried out by electromagnetic waves on transatmospheric traces

A.V. Prokopov
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The system influence of refraction effects on the results of measurements, carried out by electromagnetic waves passed the troposphere and ionosphere of Earth, is analyzed. The role of these effects in forming of error (uncertainty) of measurements for such applications as global satellite navigation systems (GNSS), two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT), transmission of signals by a microwave link in the space experiment of ACES, comes into question. Formulas for the quantitative estimations of corrections for compensation of the examined effects are presented.
Keywords: error of measurements, uncertainty of measurement, troposphere, ionosphere, refraction, electromagnetic waves, system effects