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  5. Assessment of severity of radiation on the basis of accounting relations gamma-neutron component of ionizing radiation and their spectral characteristics

Assessment of severity of radiation on the basis of accounting relations gamma-neutron component of ionizing radiation and their spectral characteristics

I. Cherniavskiy
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Description: With instantaneous general gamma-neutron irradiation in doses (34-60 Gy and more), causing acute radiation sickness of an extremely severe degree with overexposure of the head, neck and chest, acute damage to the nervous system develops, which in the literature was termed the effect of an early passing incapacity of a person. The recommended criteria for assessing such radiation damage are currently very uncertain due to the lack of data on the balance of gamma-neutron radiation in the cumulative effect and can be based only on experimental radiobiology data, studies related to the most severe cases of human irradiation, as a result of spontaneous chain reactions in nuclear incidents. In most cases, nuclear tests also lacked reliable information about dose loads for individual components of radiation and spectral characteristics of the neutron component. In addition, the irradiation was, as a rule, uneven in the human body (due to the peculiarities of γ / n ratios at a given distance), which should significantly influence the effects of irradiation. Therefore, the information in the literature on the dose-effect dependencies for such scenarios of radiation damage can not be reliably established. The paper assumes that the "standardized" effects of an organism's damage leading to an early transient incapacity of a person will be observed at different distances from the center of the explosion for different types and capacities of nuclear munitions, depending on the spectrum of neutron radiation and the ratio of gamma-neutron radiation in the total dose of irradiation. The lack of data on the spectral characteristics of the neutron component determining the type of nuclear munitions should significantly affect the reliability of assessing the severity of radiation damage. Regularities are revealed in the methodology for estimating the damaging dose of gamma-neutron radiation for munitions of various types. Based on the existing models and analytical expressions allowing to calculate γ / n - the ratio of penetrating radiation components for munitions of various types, the distribution of the damaging dose with distance from the center of the explosion was obtained. This makes it possible more correctly to estimate areas with a given biological effect in the developed systems of radiation monitoring of military emergencies.


Keywords: ratio of gamma-neutron components, penetrating radiation, damaging dose, type of nuclear munition

Reference:
 Cherniavskyi, Y.Yu. (2018), “Otsenka tiazhesty radyatsyonnoho porazhenyia na osnove ucheta sootnoshenyi hamma-neitronnыkh komponent pronykaiushchei radyatsyy y ykh spektralnыkh kharakterystyk” [Assessment of severity of radiation on the basis of accounting relations gamma-neutron component of ionizing radiation and their spectral characteristics], Information Processing Systems, Vol. 3(154), pp. 105-115. https://doi.org/10.30748/soi.2018.154.14.