Description: The article analyzes basic operation of cognitive radio and cognitive radio networks. Due to the rapid development of telecommunication systems of wireless broadband access, such as cellular and satellite communications, local area networks Wi-Fi and WIMAX, arise a problem with the frequency band deficit. This mean that the distributed and licensed frequency spectrum is overloaded in certain bandwidths, while non-licensed frequencies are used insufficiently or not used at all. To solve this problem, it is necessary to use innovative spectrum controlling methods that would support efficient use of the frequency band by the services, and also made it possible the common use of the limited spectrum resources and their implementation into the telecommunication systems. Under certain conditions, deployment of approaches based on dynamic control on the radio spectrum can contribute to solving such a problem. Ensure of the intelligent control during radio domain sweep they can independently and over a short period of time switch between temporarily empty and licensed frequencies (“white spots”). However, for its implementation it is necessary to solve a number of complex tasks, which related to the manipulation of the use of the spectrum of radio frequencies. Similar intelligent networks with the dynamic control of the spectrum of radio frequencies suggested to use American researcher Joseph Mitola and called them the term “cognitive radio”. Its work principle is a technically complex process. However, the networks developed according to this principle, unlike the others, are enabled to extracting, analyzing and storing information received from the environment, forecasting changes in it and self-adjusting their parameters to achieve the stated goals and “learning” on the evidence found. As the technical realization of such systems has been proposed to use approaches based on geolocation database and spectral sensing electromagnetic environment. But it should be noted that the future directions of the introducing different approaches to cognitive radio systems require careful research with allowance for the effectiveness of the proposed solutions.
Keywords: cognitive radio, dynamic control on the radio spectrum, geolocation database, broadband access
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