Description: The monitoring system implemented in the posts of registration of parameters of a nuclear explosion must have a flexible and reliable structure, which should depend both on the scale of the actual detection zones of the required parameters and on the resistance of the recorders to the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion. The paper studies the methodological apparatus for determining the actual areas of registration of light and gamma-neutron penetrating radiation of a nuclear explosion. On the basis of the military experience of using optical detection stations, the influence of metrological conditions on the determination of the actual areas of registration of light radiation is analyzed. On the basis of taking into account the sensitivity threshold of the measuring channel and the radiation resistance threshold of the element base of the recorders, the maximum and minimum radius of the registration of parameters for the instant gamma-neutron radiation of penetrating radiation was estimated. A triangulation method for determining the distance to the center of a nuclear explosion is considered. An approach is proposed to choose the location of registration points in populated areas (cities) and to construct actual zones of optical and gamma-neutron registration of parameters.With moderate fog for nuclear explosion powers from 1 kt to 1 Mt, the radius of the optical recording zone decreases to 8-18 km. The maximum radius can range from 4.2 to 6.3 km, while the minimum radius of gamma radiation can be from 1.4 to 3.5 km from the center of a nuclear explosion. An assessment of the possibility of registering a fluence of fast neutrons shows that, depending on the type and power of a nuclear weapon, the detection radius varies from 2.2 km to 4.1 km from the center of a nuclear explosion. For small and ultra-low-power ammunition, the minimum registration radius at which reliable data on nuclear explosion parameters are recorded is about 0.5 km and 2.1 km for 10 Mt thermonuclear ammunition. Dynamic range analysis shows the same order of values for all scenarios of use of nuclear weapon. The registration zone for neutron radiation can be about 1800-3500 m, which is 1.5 times smaller than the zone for instant gamma radiation. Based on the actual zones obtained, the optimal base distances between neighboring check-points have been calculated for various implementation options of nuclear explosion parameters recorders.
Keywords: light and gamma-neutron radiation, monitoring system, nuclear explosion parameters recorde.
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